The Ford Torino is a family car produced by Ford for the North American market between 1968 and 1976. It was available in two or four doors, but also in convertible or station wagon (station wagon) and always had four real seats. It was initially a derivative of the Ford Fairlane wagon produced from 1962 to 1970. After 1968, the Fairlane name was retained for the base Torino, the latter still being considered a derivative of the Fairlane. In 1970, this peculiarity was reversed, the Torino became an official model and the Fairlane only survived among the various versions of the Torino. The name of Fairlane disappeared definitively in 1971 and the Torino became the family of Ford. Its name comes from the city of Turin in Italy, Torino in Italian. This was one of the names proposed for the Ford Mustang during its development. Torinos were generally classic cars without much appeal, moreover the model was more popular in the four-door version. However, Ford released several versions with high performance engines typical of the muscle car era such as the 7.0L Cobra-Jet V8. The Torino was also chosen to run in Nascar during its existence. For 1970, the Torino became the main model and the Fairlane became a finish of the Torino. Ford moved away from emulating the square lines of full-size Fords to an all-new bodywork for the 1970 Torino / Fairlane lineup, influenced by the Coca-Cola bottle style. Just as the rear wings were influenced by the jets of the 1950s, stylists such as Ford stylist Bill Shenk who designed the 1970 Ford Torino were inspired by supersonic planes with a narrow waist and Domed front and rear fuselages necessary to achieve supersonic speeds (see Law of areas (aerodynamics)). The 1970 Torino had a styling with a short trunk and a longer, more prominent hood, and it was longer, lower and wider than the 1969 models. All models had a lower roofline and less formal than the models. models from previous years. The slope of the windshield was increased, and the SportsRoof models had an even flatter fastback roofline. The Torino had a pointed front end and the overall styling felt much more aerodynamic than in previous years. The grille covered the entire width of the front fascia and surrounded the four headlights. The beltline extended from the front fender to the front door, tilting downward and gradually disappearing into the rear side panel. The front and rear bumpers were slim, fitted chrome units, which followed the lines of the body. The taillights were located in the rear panel above the bumper and were now long rectangular units with rounded outer edges. The model line for 1970 initially consisted of 13 models. The base model, the Fairlane 500, was available as a 2-door hardtop, 4-door sedan and 4-door wagon. Then the mid-level Torino was available in 2 and 4-door hardtop, 4-door sedan and station wagon. The pillar-less 4-door hardtop was a new body style for the 1970 model year (Chevrolet introduced this body style for its mid-size Chevelle from 1966). The Torino Brougham, the highest trim level, was available in 2 and 4-door hardtop and 4-door station wagon versions. The sporty Torino GT was available in SportsRoof 2-door and convertible versions. The performance model, the Torino Cobra, was only available as a 2-Door SportsRoof version. To add to this extensive lineup, the Falcon name was added in the middle of the year as a new entry-level finish in the midsize car category. The compact Ford Falcon continued for the first half of the 1970 model year, but was discontinued because it could not meet the new federal standards that came into effect on January 1, 1970. As a result, the model name Falcon was used. as a new economical finish in the mid-size car category. The 1970 Falcon was available as a 2- and 4-door sedan and a 4-door station wagon. These were the cheapest midsize car models with less standard features than the Fairlane 500s. The Falcon was the only midsize car that used a rubber floor instead of carpet, and was the only trim to offer a 2 sedan. pillar doors. A 2-door Torino SportsRoof model was also introduced in the middle of the year, marketed as a low-cost alternative to the GT. With the mid-year additions above, Fords midsize car lineup consisted of 17 distinct models. The new 1970 bodywork added inches and pounds to the Torino, which made it possible to stretch the chassis used in 196869. All cars increased by about 5 (127mm) in length and now ran on a longer wheelbase of 117 (2972mm) (station wagons used a 114 (2900mm) wheelbase). Weight increased by at least 100 lbs (45 kg) for most models. The track has been widened to 60.5 (1537mm) at the front and 60 (1524mm) at the rear to help the Torino improve its handling capabilities. The extra width between the spring towers increased the size of the engine compartment allowing the larger 385 V8s to fit in. However, the suspension remained unchanged from the 1969 models. Optional suspension finishes included competition suspension and heavy duty suspension options. The competition suspension consisted of heavy-duty springs at the front and rear (500 lbs (226.8 kg) per inch at the front and 210 lbs (95.3 kg) per inch at the rear) , Gabriel shocks (offset rear shocks on cars with 4-speed transmission), and a large 0.95 front stabilizer bar (0.75 on standard suspensions). In a test drive of a 1970 Torino Cobra by Motor Trend, Motor Trend described the competition suspension as completely different - the car does tight corners in a controlled slide that inspires confidence. Everything is very smooth and unusual. The interiors of the Torino were all new for 1970. The instrument panel used a linear style speedometer centered in front of the driver and a new ribbon style tachometer was an option for the V8 models. The temperature gauge was the only gauge available oil pressure and electricity were only monitored by warning lights. High-back bucket seats were available for all 2-door models, as was an optional console. All 2-Door, SportsRoof and Convertible hardtop models had DirectAire ventilation systems as standard, eliminating the need for vented windows. The 2- and 4-door sedans and station wagons still had vented windows but the DirectAire system was an option for these models. The ignition switch has been moved from the instrument panel to the steering column, in accordance with federal regulations. The steering wheel and column shifter were locked when the key was removed. The engine lineup underwent major changes, and only the 250 cubic inch inline six, 302-2V and 351W-2V were carried over from 1969. Most models continued to use the 250 inline six. cubic inches as standard engine. Optional engines included the 302-2V (standard on GT and Brougham models), 351W-2V, the new Cleveland 351 available with a 2- or 4-barrel carburetor, and the new 385 Series 429-4V V8 (standard on Cobra models). Selecting the 351-2V motor from the options list resulted in the purchaser receiving either the 351W-2V or the 351C-2V both shared the same rated power and the same VIN code. The 429-4V engine was available in three different versions. The first was the Thunder Jet 429, the Cobras standard engine, with an output of 360 hp (270 kW). Next came the 370 hp (276 kW) CJ (Cobra Jet) 429, which featured a 2-bolt main block, hydraulic valve lifters, a Holley 700 CFM or Rochester Quadrajet 715 CFM carburetor, and was available with or without Ram Air. The best option was the SCJ (Super Cobra Jet) 429, rated at 375 hp (280 kW), and was part of the Drag Pack option. Selecting the Drag Pack option turned a CJ 429 into an SCJ 429. The Drag Pack required an axle ratio of 3.91: 1 or 4.30: 1 and included a 4-bolt main engine block, forged pistons, Holley 780 CFM carburetor, engine oil cooler and solid lift cam. The Detroit Locker rear differential was included when the 4.30: 1 axle was ordered while the Traction-Lock limited slip differential was included with the 3.91: 16 axle. Ram Air induction was optional on the 351C-4V, CJ 429, and SCJ 429 engines, but the Ram Air did not change the horsepower ratings advertised. The Ram Air option included a bonnet shaker where the scoop was attached to the top of the air filter assembly and protruded through a hole in the hood. A 3-speed transmission was standard on all models except the Cobra which came with a 4-speed transmission as standard equipment. The Cruise-O-Matic automatic transmission was optional for all engines while the 4-speed transmission was available on all engines except the six cylinders and the 302-2V. Torino Brougham models come standard with additional exterior and interior trims, thinner trims, wheel covers, unique emblems, additional sound insulation and Hideaway headlights. The Hideaway headlights had headlight covers that were designed to resemble the vehicles grille extending over the front end. When the lights were on, the vacuum actuators would flip the covers up to expose the four headlights. Motor Trend wrote that when you step into a Brougham its the same feeling as an LTD, or even, dare we say it, a Continental. But on a more manageable scale. Motor Trend praised the 1970 Torino Brougham 2-Door for its quiet interior that only allowed the thud of highway expansion joints. The Torino GT came standard with a non-functional hood scoop molded into the hood, GT emblems (including on the center of the grille), two-tone sport mirrors, full-width taillights with honeycomb styling. bee (the central part was only reflective), black trunk lid appliques and wheel trims with wheel trim rings. Standard tires for the GT were E70-14 fiberglass belted tires, while convertibles wore F70-14 tires. Bucket seats and console were no longer standard equipment on the GT, but remained optional. Other new options for the Torino GT were a reflective laser strip, which was in the middle of the side of the Torino, which went from the front fender to the door, and the Hideaway headlights. Motor Trend magazine tested a 1970 Torino GT SportsRoof with a CJ 429 engine, C-6 automatic transmission, and 3.50: 1 axle ratio, and got a 0-60 mph ( 97 km / h) of 6.0 seconds, while the quarter mile took 14.4 seconds at 100.2 mph (161.3 km / h). The Torino Cobra remained the top performance model, but was a lower trim level than the Torino GT. The Cobra was only available as a SportsRoof and came standard with a close-ratio 4-speed drivetrain, Hurst shifter, competition suspension, black flat bonnet and grille, 7-inch wheels. inches wide, F70-14 tires with embossed white lettering, exposed twist-style hood latches and Cobra emblems. New options included 15 (380mm) Magnum 500 wheels with F60-15 tires and matte black Sport Slats for the rear window (both also available on the Torino GT). Performance was good although the Torino was heavier in 1970. Motor Trend tested a 1970 Torino Cobra fitted with the 370 hp (276 kW) CJ 429 engine with Ram Air, the C-6 automatic transmission and a high gear. 3.50: 1 rear axle, and it went from 0 to 60 mph (97 km / h) in 6.0 seconds while taking 14.5 seconds at 100 mph (161 km / h) to travel the quarter mile. Motor Trend wrote: The weight obviously contributed to the traction, as it was quite easy to accelerate from a standing start with only minimal slippage. Motor Trend also tested a 1970 Cobra with an SCJ 429 engine, 4-speed transmission, and 3.91: 1 axle ratio, and resulted in a 0-60 mph time of 5.8 seconds. (97 km / h), with a time of 13.99 quarter-mile seconds at 101.0 mph (162.5 km / h). Super Stock and Drag Illustrated beat that time, in their test of a Torino Cobra fitted with the 375 hp (280 kW) SCJ 429 engine, C-6 automatic transmission and 3.91: 1 rear axle ratio. They were able to cover the quarter mile in 13.63 seconds at 105.95 mph (170.51 km / h), but that was after the carburetor modification (improved power valve, larger primary and secondary jets). Super Stock and Drag Illustrated fitted a pair of slick tires on the same Torino and ran the quarter mile in 13.39 seconds at 106.96 mph (172.14 km / h). The 1970 station wagon models were initially offered in three different levels: the Fairlane 500 station wagon, the Torino station wagon and the Torino Squire station wagon. In mid-1970, the Falcon station wagon became the basic station wagon. The sheet metal of the station wagons has not been changed as drastically as that of the 2-door and 4-door models. Most of the sheet metal behind the front doors was taken from the 1968-69 body style. As a result, station wagons felt straighter and squarer than sedans and coupes. The Torino Squire, the top-of-the-line station wagon, featured woodgrain sides, headlight covers and a trim level similar to that of the Torino Brougham sedan. The Squire comes standard with a 302-2V V8 engine and electric front disc brakes other station wagons had 4-wheel drum brakes and the 250-cubic-inch inline-six. All station wagons used Fords Magic Doorgate two-way tailgate, but the power rear window, rear-facing third seat, and roof rack were options. Ford offered a towing package for all Torinos, which allowed the Torino to have a Class II towing rating (3,500 lbs (1,588 kg)). This package included a rugged suspension, rugged battery and alternator, an additional cooling package, and electric front disc brakes. The 351 cubic inch (5.8 L) or 429 cubic inch (7.0 L) engine, power steering and Cruise-O-Matic automatic transmission were required options. Overall, 1970 was a successful year for Torino. It was a car well received by the automotive press and was chosen as the Motor Trend Car of the Year for 1970. Motor Trend stated that the Torino was not really a line of cars in the old sense of the word, but a system of specialized cars, each for a different use ... from luxury to performance. Ford produced 230,411 Torino for 1970, as well as 110,029 Fairlane and 67,053 Falcon, for a total production of 407,493 units. 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